The energy footprint of BBC radio services: now and in the future

There are various studies investigating the energy footprint of digital technology and services, including streaming, broadcast television, telecommunications and consumer electronic devices.
However, there are currently no complete studies estimating the electricity consumption of radio broadcast and listening.
This paper presents an approach to modelling the energy required to prepare, distribute and consume BBC radio services, exploring both the current usage and how this may change over 20 years under a variety of scenarios.